Armenian News Network / Groong


NINETY-SIX YEARS AGO TODAY. The S.S. Leviathan leaves Hoboken, New Jersey on Sunday, February 16 th 1919 with nearly 250 early responder volunteers of the American Committee for Relief in the Near East anxious and determined to help in ‘reconstruction.’ Talented and willing American help for survivors of the Turkish Genocide against the Armenians is on its way.  A detailed list of workers and their efforts to salvage remnants, and “putting the fragments together.”  

Armenian News Network / Groong
February 16, 2015


Special to Groong by Abraham D. Krikorian and Eugene L. Taylor

Long Island, NY

 

“Here is not a nation,” … “temporarily washed from its habitat by the wave of war, but an entire people, deported, exiled, scattered, tortured and butchered — and not for the sake of conquest or strategic advantage over the enemy, but for the deliberate purpose of exterminating that people from the face of the earth.  What is left of the Armenian race …[are] but few “fragments,” and the task of putting these fragments together and maintaining them is the task of the United States.

1915 release to the Press by Committee on Armenian Atrocities (New York City)

 

“There recently was a Preparedness Parade, which marched up Fifth Avenue twenty abreast and took about thirteen hours to pass a given point. From 10 A.M. till well into the evening, this great army of 125,000 continued to tramp up the street. If the Armenian men, women and children who died in Turkey within a twelvemonth should rise again and march in solemn procession to beg the assistance of the American people for their surviving brothers, the procession...marching twenty abreast would take two days and two nights to pass the Great Viewing Stand.”

 From “Relief Work in the Turkish Empire in Bulletin No. 5” Latest News Concerning the Armenian and Syrian Sufferers May 24, 1916

 

Foreword

We contemplated designating this post as “The Leviathan Party Sent to Turkey-in-Asia by the American Committee for Relief in the Near East in the Aftermath of Massacre, Persecution and Starvation: a list and partial profile of the ‘First Responder Volunteers’ as a resource in Armenian genocide studies.”  The title ultimately used is considerably longer, but we opted for the longer because it was more detailed and hence more informative. We like detail since as the adage says “The devil is in the detail.”

All should know that this is a year of special commemoration.  It is the centenary of the onset of the genocide against the Armenians by the Young Turk regime who were in charge of the Ottoman Empire. There are of course many ways of remembering.  Some years ago on our retirement we undertook the task of attempting to attest and attribute relevant photographs.  Attest simply stated means affirming the accuracy of what a photograph represents, and attribute means identifying a given photograph with a person, place and time. [Endnote 1] 

What follows is an effort on our part to make available for convenient use and further study, a listing of volunteers who went to genocide-ravaged regions and centers of destruction to help.  Theirs are important human stories ̶ stories of work and effort among survivors to replace despair with hope.

This project was started some years ago. Although it has not matured as much as we had hoped in the interim, it seems appropriate to make it available now in this commemorative year so that those interested can make use of it and perhaps even see fit to add to it. We hope that it may one day reach the level of completeness that it so richly deserves. We are aware of a number of collaborative group and joint efforts aimed at achieving ends this special commemorative year that would otherwise be overwhelming for any given individual. Filling in the blanks here may well qualify for such further work. Only time will tell.

In an extemporaneous film we uploaded to You Tube on the History of the Armenian Orphan Rug we have described the volunteers who served in the Near East Relief as ‘Heroes”.  Indeed they were. The range of broad human service extended by these volunteers was, to use a nowadays much overused word, awesome. We can think of no better place than the lists of volunteers who served in the Near East Relief as a starting place to track down photographs relating to the period when the pieces of the Armenian nation were being picked up. In this posting we will not present specific photographs reflecting what workers found at their appointed posts. A few may be seen, however, incorporated into our video video.[Endnote 2.]

Like many others, we view photographs as witnesses. Many will agree that the Internet is both a blessing and a curse. This is especially so when it comes to attestation and attribution. Reinventing the “Old County”, the yerghir, or the Land, imagining, better yet visualizing the various persecutions in Ottoman Turkey culminating in the Genocide, and the post-Genocidal period each have their enthusiasts, followers and partisans. Surprisingly, it has only been relatively recently that professional historians have oriented themselves in seeking to understand the past through photographs and imagery. For our part, we will state that it is not an easy task, is fraught with many challenges, and depends in no small measure on a good deal of luck. We are content, indeed happy, that we are not historians and there have felt quite free to follow any path that conditions and opportunities seem to dictate. [Endnote 3]

Deliberate confusion and obfuscation of incontestable facts through dogged and selective concentration on specific photographs has been utilized and exploited by many who seek to deny the Armenian Genocide just as they have been by those who deny the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews and others who were targets of the venomous hatred of the Nazis. [Endnote 4]  The fact remains however that no amount of minor criticism can detract from the fact of the Armenian Genocide.  The intent on the part of ‘the Turks’ and their supporters ever since the perpetration of the genocide has been to stimulate controversy by whatever means may seem appropriate at any given moment.  As stated many years ago by Dr. Gerard Libaridian ‘The Armenian Genocide is not an historiographical problem, it is a political one.”

In our experience, one of the best ways to achieve excellent attestation and attribution, that is image and reality, is by seeking out individuals or their descendants who were on the scene at any given point or given timeframe and actually took or have photographs, and who wrote letters and accounts, and even kept diaries. Obviously this is not a trivial task, but it is a valuable approach that has been very much underexploited so far as finding photographs that can serve as historical landmarks.

We, like many others, have noted the irony that many Armenian photographers were active in the Ottoman Empire right from the very outset of availability of photography as a technique. Yet their legacy on the genocide and its aftermath is exceedingly minimal for very understandable reasons. When the Ottoman Government finally relented to the repeated requests of the United States and grudgingly allowed relief to be given to its victims, the response was quick. This has been commented on from time to time using arguments that ‘the Turks’ were merely covering their selfish interests in the event their ally Germany lost the war, or that they themselves could reap benefits from ‘foreign aid’ – those in authority seeking shamelessly to take a percentage for themselves through graft, corruption, theft whatever.  There also was a very real concern, even fear, on the part of Turkey that the United States might enter the war on the side of the Entente, declare war on Turkey etc.  There even was an equally damning evaluation of ‘the Turks’ by an American who knew and worked over many years with the Ottoman government authorities.  He drew attention to the Turks as predictably being of an unfocussed mindset whereby they were typically unable to carry out any “continuity of action.”  Be that as it may, and on the surface of things, relief was being allowed by the Ottoman authorities. The real problem was getting it to those in desperate need. Travel infrastructure in the Empire was marginal. Not only getting relief to all in need but in a timely manner. That activity constituted additional challenges and many stories have emerged from that trying to work under such circumstances. For example, trucks were ultimately deemed very unsatisfactory for transporting relief supplies to the Kharpert region. Ultimately, time-tested camel caravans had to be relied upon to bring materials from the Black Sea coastal ports.

But let us jump ahead to the time when the war was over, and a number of the areas of Asia Minor were opened up, more or less to relief and reconstruction.  After all, survivors who had been driven out were supposedly being allowed by the ‘winners’ of the war to ‘go home.’[Endnote 4]

Before we give the main enumeration of the volunteers we think some additional background will be useful.  We give this background in the form of a few accounts from newspapers.  This is because the newspapers were the main source of information for those first learning what was being done to the Armenians of Turkey, and eventually those Americans who were contemplating volunteering.  The American missionaries who voluntarily left or were forced to leave the Empire during the genocide or were on leave back home or in Europe and could not return were among the first who were anxious to get back to ‘their people.’

A few references and excerpts from the New York Times follow. The ones selected here are interesting especially since they refer to the situation fairly early on.

NY Times Sept. 15, 1916 pg. 4. Washington. Sept. 14, 1916. “Turkey Will Permit Relief for Syrians. Ottoman Government Yields to Pleas by Washington for Starving People.”

“The action reverses the previous attitude of Turkish officials, who had refused two urgent please of the department for the privilege to make food shipments…The [State] department regarded Turkey’s action was especially timely, since Oct. 21 and 22 have been named in a proclamation by President Wilson as relief days for raising further funds and supplies for Syrians and Armenians.  The consent of the Ottoman government with respect to Syria does not apply to Armenia, but negotiations are being continued for similar concessions there. (Our emphasis) As forwarded by the Embassy at Constantinople, the Turkish communication fixes only one condition, that supplies for Syria be distributed from Beirut through the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies…Turkey had insisted that there was no need for relief supplies there [Syria].  Advices from other sources, however, convinced the State Department that many of the inhabitants had been reduced to starvation.” 

NY Times Oct. 4, 1916 pg. 2. Washington. Oct. 3, 1916. “Asks for $5,000,000 to Succor Armenia.  American Committee Starts Biggest Undertaking of Mercy Since Relief of Belgium.”

An exhaustive summary of the whole Armenian and Syrian situation was made public and will be sent to ministers of 120,000 churches all over the country and to many leading citizens and relief organizations. A fund of $5,000,000 is called for to relieve 1,000,000 destitute, exiled and starving Armenians and Syrians scattered broadcast all over Turkey, Persia, Syria and Palestine.  The appeal declares that nearly 2,000,000 Armenians originally in their native country, three quarters of a million have been massacred, or have died of wounds, disease or exhaustion since the war began. … “People were found eating grass, herbs and locusts,” says the committee in describing its investigation of conditions in Armenia, “and in desperate cases dead animals and human bodies have been reported to have been eaten. In some cases men were lined up so that several could be shot with one bullet in order not to waste ammunition.  A mother said that not a girl above 12 (and some younger) in the village of — escaped violation. The people kill and eat street dogs...”

NY Times Oct. 22, 1916 pg. 2. “Give MILLIONS TODAY TO SAVE ARMENIANS.”

… “It was announced yesterday that one wealthy American who has already given $18,000 to the Armenian and Syrian fund had sent another check for $25,000.  By request of the giver his name was withheld and will not be made public. Part of the receipts of the Yale-Harvard football game in the Yale stadium will be donated to the fund while the Rev.“Billy” Sunday, who is holding a revival is to take up a special collection in the Detroit Tabernacle.  As soon as the money collected begins coming in, which will be the next few days, the Committee in New York, of which Charles P. Crane, 70 Fifth Avenue, is the Treasurer, will begin the purchase of the most needed supplies, which are to be shipped to Armenia and Syria on a United States naval collier loaned to the committee for that purpose by order of President Wilson.  Mr. Crane said yesterday that he hoped that at least $4,000,000 will be raised in the next three weeks.

A statement detailing conditions in Armenia and Syria, as based on the latest reports received from Turkey, was given out by the Armenian and Syrian Committee yesterday. What is left of the Armenian race is described in that statement as but few “fragments,” and the task of putting these fragments together and maintaining them is the task, the committee adds, of the United States,

“Here is not a nation,” says the statement, “temporarily washed from it habitat by the wave of war, but an entire people, deported, exiled, scattered, tortured and butchered — and not for the sake of conquest or strategic advantage over the enemy, but for the deliberate purpose of exterminating that people from the face of the earth.” (our emphasis, see epigraph at the outset of this article.)

“Then follows a complete story of the massacre of the Armenians by the Turks, and of the torturing or deportation of the survivors, a story which was told in all its detail in Viscount Bryce’s report, which was published in THE NEW YORK TIMES two weeks ago.

“One dollar, it is pointed out, will sustain ten people one week in Asia Minor. An average of $1 given by each American, it is added, will keep alive what is left of the sufferers for two years.”

Hopefully these newspaper reports set the stage a bit as to what was happening after the onset of the Genocide in 1915.  Let us go forward to 1919.

The history of the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief (ACRNE), a predecessor of what came ultimately to be the Near East Relief, has been told more than a few times.[Endnote 5]

After the War ended it took a while for the conditions in Asia Minor to improve to the point where relief workers could enter the Constantinople port areas (they had been mined).  Eastern Asiatic Turkey was a still greater obstacle, and the Americans who went over to assess the situation concluded that it was not yet safe for the volunteers to travel into the interior.

Finally, in the NY Times February 17, 1919 pg. 6 we read that “Near East Expedition Leaves.”   A reproduction of the full notice follows.

 

 

The S.S. Leviathan was formerly the S.S. Vaterland, a Hamburg-American (German) liner.  It was the largest ship on the seas (tonnage 59,956; length 950 ft.; 4 times around the promenade deck = 1 mile) and had been interned at Hoboken by the Americans at the outbreak of the European war in 1914. It was taken over, “commandeered” by the U.S. Government when the Americans declared war on Germany on December 7, 1917.  It was refitted, renamed S.S. Leviathan and was used as an Army transport for American troops to Brest, FinistŹre, France in Brittany. The ship was often referred to as “one of Germany’s worst enemies.”  Nine thousand soldiers were typically carried per trip.

Below we present an image from a German postcard giving the particulars of Vaterland. This is followed by a photograph showing the Leviathan painted in camouflage. It was photographed on May 30, 1918 by the United States Signal Corps photographer Lt. A.J. Sutton and we scanned it at U.S. National Archives, College Park, Maryland (RG 111 Box 105). When the Leviathan was transporting the ACRNE volunteers to Brest, France, the Leviathan still had its camouflage (see 2nd image below). By May 1919 its camouflage had been painted over or removed (see 3rd photo below). That photo also shows tugs near the Leviathan that allows the sheer scale of size to be appreciated.

 

 

 

 

The June 13, 1924 issue of  Near East Relief’s  now very rare serial magazine “Team Work” we find a fairly comprehensive document, some 64 pages long, of those who served in relief efforts.  The “Leviathan party” people are so designated. Since they belong to that distinct group of what might today be called ‘first responders’ they have special pride of place not only for their timely volunteering for service in general but their very early service from among the more than 10,000 individuals who eventually served.  Others had given aid and helped survivors of the massacres etc. but were not part of the large organized effort that constituted the ACRNE.  It is beyond the scope of this brief article to provide the significance of all this in the context of the foundations of humanitarian aid efforts but so far as the United States is concerned it may be useful to point out that a December 14, 1930 brief book review of the Story of  Near East Relief, an interpretation by Rev. Dr. James L. Barton, 1930) opened with the following: “In a very real and intimate sense this book belongs to almost the whole of the people of the United States, since almost every man, woman and child in the country contributed to the work of the Near East Relief, the story of whose labors and achievements it tells.” (NY Times, 14 December 1930 BR pg.18).  In Dr. Barton’s “Story of Near East Relief” (1930) there is an extensive listing of “Overseas Personnel” in the form of an appendix but only names are given. The two ‘shots’ of the same group photo below taken on the British Red Cross Hospital Ship “Gloucester Castle” show the workers in their ACRNE uniforms, expressly designed for the effort (see below for a brief timetable of travel from which one can deduce a rough date the photograph was taken).

 

 

 

 

 

Rough Timetable of Travel

The “Leviathan Party” boarded the ship on the 15th of February.  Early the next morning they were on their way.  Among them were some women who were headed for Paris to serve in the YMCA.  Others were members of the Jewish Board.  Mine-Sweeps were on the sides so that loose mines could be cut loose.  At night, full black-out precautions were in place. The 6-day plus crossing was smooth and they disembarked at Brest, France on Sunday morning 23 February. They made their headquarters at the Red Cross at Brest, and boarded U.S. Hospital train “Pullmans” with blankets and pillows—berths to just sit on for Marseilles. They reached Marseilles on Wednesday around 1 P.M. and transferred promptly to the British Hospital Ship “Gloucester Castle”, described as an attractive ship painted white with a Red Cross painted on both sides. It too was outfitted with mine sweepers, as a precaution. (It had been attacked back in March of 1917 by a German U-Boat in the English channel. It was sunk but raised and rehabilitated for service.)

They went ashore for a day at Salonika, before going on to Constantinople. It was Saturday morning 8 March that 241 people were landed – some 20 days from New York. Some were housed at the terminal station of the ‘Oriental’ Berlin-Bagdad Railway. Some were taken out to the Prinkipo island, of the Princes’ Islands group, and put up at a luxury resort facility that was still occupied by German officer prisoners of War, etc. Out on the Sea of Marmora were boats being unloaded of supplies at the warehouse facility at the German-built deep water port of Derindje. The main warehouse building also constituted living quarters for women at the top (3rd) floor, men 2nd floor, the storeroom, dining room, supplies divided for each unit such as Cesaria, Sivas, Harput, Malatia etc. (These arrangements etc. were switched and developed as time passed and the facility became fully operational as a relief supply center.)

There is a fair body of information through letters that provide detail and reflection on various happenings. The Missionary Herald  tried to give updates on happenings (e.g. issue of June 1919 p. 235 ff.). The group that left for Harpoot (Kharpert) was the last to leave Derindje.  This was on the evening of Sunday, May 25, 1919. As an interesting aside we may quote from a letter written by Frances C. MacDaniels to her Mother dated 25 May, 1919 stating “We’ll hate to leave this place. It would make a wonderful summer resort. The beautiful bay, hills, wild flowers and birds. They say there’s a lake [Geuljuk] 15 miles from Harpoot, so maybe we can declare a holiday on the 4th of July and have a regular bath.” She seems not to have known that the ravines and gullies around the Lake were but one of many scenes of mass murder of Armenians during the Genocide. [See Endnote 6]

Before we present the Table, it will be helpful also perhaps to gain a bit of a broader perspective by reproducing a message communicated to Armenian Syrian Relief in New York City by Navy Radio from Constantinople to Washington, D.C. and forwarded. This message dated 3/12/1919 (read March 12) provides details such as were then available on the disposition and status of the volunteers and their intended postings at the various locations. The scale of this “first responder” operation will be evident. Some of the names in this ‘Radio Message’ will be familiar to some readers.

 

Message by Navy Radio, received via Washington 3/12/19

 

                        Please forward to Armenian Syrian Relief New York from Constantinople

Quote

                        Relief ship Westmount sailed February 26th, for Batoum with 5000 tons flour, one medical unit, clothing, supplies 5000 pairs shoes all for half million waiting refugees and destitute people.  Dr. Main, Elmer, Hadley, Todd accompanying.  Immediate need for seed grains desperate.

                        Pensacola arrived March first with entire party in excellent health and cargo in perfect condition.  All hands engaged in discharging and storing cargo in preparation for shipment to interior.  Cargo all being stored in capacious warehouses constructed by Germans for military purposes put at our disposal by British without cost.

                        Twenty car train leaving March 6th over Bagdad Railway with Professor Moore and Dr. Barton for Konia, Adana, Tarsus, Aleppo, Urfa, and Mardin.  Workers and supplies are taken also by same train for Cesarea, Sivas, Marash, Aintab, Diarbekir and Harput.  Additional trains will follow as soon as workers arrive to receive and distribute supplies.  Country can be entered with safety since military officers accompany, giving protection and assisting in relief operations.  Railroads are in hands of British; we are assigned whole trains for the transportation of cars, motor lorries, workers, farm tractors and to land supplies at all points reached by rail.  Overland transportation more difficult owing to bad state of roads.

                        Following assignment of workers has been made;

                        Accompanying Professor Moore to Konia, Cesarea, and Sivas are Custer, Hawkes, Beach, Thayer, Duer, Linn, Sutherland, Curt, Partridge, Irwin, and John Moore.

                        Accompanying Dr. Barton to Adana, Tarsus, Marash, Aintab, Aleppo, Urfa, Mardin, Diarbekir, and Harput are Loucks, Means, Vrooman, Weeden, Farnsworth, President Gates, Riggs, Wirt and Carrier.

                        Joining Dr. Main, Caucasus, are Ussher, Greenleaf, Ayer, Gilman, and Babcock.

                        A[at?]. Constantinople center Farnham, Count, Carman, with Peet, Hatch and Washburn.

                        Temporarily at dock and warehouses unloading and arranging cargo and hospital units, trucks and Fords are MacGeehon, Hoagland, Warden, Perry, Kingsbury, Salman, Bailey, Willson, Derstine, Bell, Field, and Capt. Niles Connelly, Burgess, and Stoltzfus brothers, leaving temporarily at Beirut Miller, Hertzler, Graber, Scott, Deter.

                        We are calling from Beirut to Aleppo, Aintab, and Urfa Zimmermann, Miller, Hertzler, Graber, Scott, Deter.

                        Visiting Samsoun and Marsovan with supplies are Hatch, and Washburn, accompanied by Holway and Smith.

                        Many telegrams received from various parts of Turkey report thousands of Armenian women and children forcibly taken by Turks are being set adrift by command of high Turkish officers influenced by French and British authorities.  Within few days 1300 children have been discharged in Constantinople and many more in Interior.

            The situation demands immediate and comprehensive action upon a large scale as surviving Armenians while cooperating to their utmost are too depleted and impoverished to receive back all their own while the opportunity for rendering mighty humanitarian service has never been surpassed.

                        We are straining every nerve to set the new emergency with our 120 American workers on ground.  Eagerly anticipating arrival 250 additional workers now on way that medical units may be put into action and orphans cared for.

                        The restoration of thes[e] subject peoples began simultaneously with arrival of Commission throwing unusual responsibility upon our Committee since all parties expect us to meet the situation adequately.

Unquote

Barton Sims

 

 

The Table listing the Leviathan volunteers follows the Endnotes and Acknowledgements below as an Addendum

The headings should be explanatory. To repeat, the Table is a working document.  Our hope is that it will open some avenues for those interested in ‘unearthing’ fresh photographic materials reflecting service to the Armenian remnants. There remains, of course, an enormous task ahead but at least we hope we have provided a first draft sketch. [Endnote 7]

 

Endnotes

[Endnote 1]  For example Tessa Hofmann and Gerayer Koutcharian (1992) "Images that horrify and indict": pictorial documents on the persecution and extermination of Armenians from 1877 to 1922’, The Armenian Review, 45, 53-184; Armin T. Wegner, A.M. Samuelli (1996) Armin T. Wegner e gli Armeni in Anatolia, 1915: immagini e testimonianze = Armin T. Wegner and the Armenians in Anatolia, 1915: images and testimonies (Milano: Guerini e Associati);Ulrich Klan (2008) “Armin T. Wegner - Bildnis einer Stimme Begleitbuch” [Armin T. Wegner - Portrait of a Voice, a companion book] (Göttingen:WallsteinVerlag); Armin T. Wegner, Andreas Meier, Wolfgang Gust (2011) Die Austreibung des armenischen Volkes in die Wüste: ein Lichtbildvortrag [The Expulsion of the Armenians into the Desert: a photo report (slide show)] (Göttingen: WallsteinVerlag, as Compact Disk); A.D. Krikorian and E.L. Taylor (2011) “Achieving ever-greater precision in attestation and attribution of genocide photographs” in Tessa Hofmann, Matthias BjŅrnlund, Vassilios Meichanetsidis (eds.), The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks, Studies on the state sponsored campaign of extermination of the Christians of Asia Minor, 1912-1922 and its aftermath: history, law, memory (New York and Athens: Aristide D. Caratzas).

[Endnote 2]  See video on our Conscience Films site entitled "History of the Armenian Orphan Rug (Coolidge Rug) Made for the White House 1925”, a photo essay, with commentary by Abraham D. Krikorian, and 'scrolling' type-written "Afterword" on You Tube. The subtitle is “Story of an Armenian Rug Made by Armenian Orphans for the White House: preserving authentic memory of survivors of the Turkish Genocide against the Armenians.”  The You Tube URL is: http://youtu.be/MkQQEFsXDRg

[Endnote 3]  See http://www.groong.com/orig/Probing-the-Photographic-Record.html  “`Witnesses' to Massacres and Genocide and their Aftermath: Probing the Photographic Record.”

[Endnote 4] For a range of valuable information in a single source see William H. Hall’s edited volume “Reconstruction in Turkey. As series of reports compiled for the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief. 1 Madison Ave. New York City.” For Private Distribution Only, 1918, 243 pages. This is available as an ebook at https://archive.org/details/reconstructioni00hallgoog 

[Endnote 4]  Sybil Milton (1986) Images of the Holocaust ̶Part 1. Holocaust and Genocide Studies vol. 1 (no.1) 27-61. Part 2. Vol. 1 (no.2) 193-216;Sybil Milton (1989) Armin T. Wegner: polemicist for Armenian and Jewish right. The Armenian Review vol. 42 (no.4), 17-40;Sybil Milton (1999) Photography as evidence of the Holocaust. History of Photography 23 (no.4), 303-312; Markon, Genya (1999) The Photo Archives of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. History of Photography vol. 23 (no.4), 341-349;Udo Wallendy (2003) Do photographs prove the NS extermination of the Jews? In: Germar Rudolf (editor) “Dissecting the Holocaust. The growing critique of ‘Truth’ and ‘Memory’.” Theses & Dissertations Press, Chicago, pgs. 243- 267.

[Endnote 5]  See James L. Barton (1930) “Story of Near East Relief (1915-1930), An Interpretation” (Macmillan, New York), 479 pages; for “The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief” specifically see the entry under that title by Charles V. Vickrey in The World Court vol. 4 no. 10, Oct.) 1918, 586-589.  This is in a special number of the World Court, vol. IV, no. 16 October 1918 entitled Relief and Reconstruction in the Near East. See http://books.google.com/books/about/The_World_Court.html?id=QjouAAAAYAAJ

[Endnote 6]  Susan K. Blair (ed.), (1989) The Slaughterhouse Province, an American Diplomat’s Report on the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1917 (New Rochelle, NY: Aristide D. Caratzas, Publisher). It is of some interest that Dr. Ruth A. Parmelee who was born in Turkey, a physician, of missionary parents and had served at Mezereh at the American Hospital did not confide in Mrs. MacDaniels as to what had been going on in Mamuret-ul-Aziz. In fact, Mrs. MacDaniels expressed the opinion that Dr. Parmelee was the least pleasant of the group going out to Harpoot. In fairness, Dr. Parmelee was a bit of a dour personality but had seen more than her share of the atrocities committed by Turks and Kurds, going back to her childhood at Trebizond during the Hamidian massacres. As time went on, Mrs. MacDaniels and Dr. Parmelee seem to have come to an accommodation and got along well.]

[Endnote 7] We sometimes joke that we are no longer “spring chickens” and must move on full forward on ‘getting some of our work out’ so others can benefit from what we have done.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank the United States National Archives for all their help and considerations while working on site both at the College Park, Maryland and at downtown Washington, D.C. facilities. We acknowledge the Oberlin College Archives for allowing us to work there and to study the Laurence H. and Frances C. MacDaniels materials.  Likewise, we thank the Archives at the University of California Berkeley, Smith College and Mount Holyoke College. We acknowledge help from Union Theological Seminary, Burke Library, Columbia University Libraries and Hoover Institution, Stanford University Archives and special collections. We owe our sincere thanks also to Mrs. Ellen MacDaniels Speers who has been a great help and source of encouragement to us, especially with her parents letters, photographs etc.

__________________________________________________________________________________________


                                                                                                                                                           

Hoboken, N.J.

February 14, 1919

 

Memorandum for:

 

            Executive officer, U. S. S. LEVIATHAN.

 

            1.  Herewith find LIST OF PASSENGERS for whom reservations are requested on your vessel scheduled to sail February 16, 1919.

 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Hopkins

Jay P.

Colonel,  C. A. C.

 

 

 

Chastand

Emanuel

Civilian, Director of School for the Rehabilitation of

Disabled Soldiers

 

 

D'Aran

Henriette

Civilian

Y.W.C.A.

 

 

Bockum

Clara

"

"

 

 

Morrison

Ethel

"

"

 

 

Andrews

Florence

"

"

 

 

Summers

Nelle   

"

"

 

 

Thompson

Jennie

"

"

 

 

 

Benson

Marion B. (Mrs.)

Civilian

Jewish Welfare Board

 

 

Barnett

Ray

"

"

 

 

Perlman

Cyrilla

"

"

 

 

Goodman

Lillian 

"

"

 

 

Levy

Esther

"

"

 

 

Aaronson

Etta

"

"

 

 

 

Eisenberg

Jennie

Civilian

Jewish Welfare Board

 

 

Burg

Sadie

"

"

 

 

Wolfson

Rosa

"

"

 

 

 

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Ahlers

Caroline A.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Ahlers, Caroline C. (Miss), of Dayton, Ohio, sailed on the "Leviathan," February 16, 1919 and served at Samsoun (November, 1919) and at Constantinople (June, 1920) where she did outstanding work in the Trachoma Hospital.  She returned to the United States in May, 1922, and is now Assistant Superintendent of Nurses at the Broad Street Hospital, 129 Broad Street, New York City.

 

Allen  

Edith R.

"

"

See Todd

R. seems to be incorrect in the Passenger List

Anthony

A. Gertrude

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Balise

Elma Cakefair Guest

"

"

- (Mrs. Peter Balise), of New Haven, Connecticut sailed on February 16, 1919.  The end of the year found her in Malatia from which she was transferred to Aleppo.  She returned June 18, 1920, and is now living at Hadley, Massachusetts (P. O. Box 444), attending to her duties as a house wife.

 

Balph

James M.

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Barker

H. Constance

"

"

"

 Listed in Barton

Barnum

Harry H.

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Berg

Matilda

"

"

"

Middle initial L. in Barton

Bill

Pauline

"

"

(Miss), of Willimantic, Connecticut, sailed on February 16, 1919, to teach and to manage a Near East Relief salesroom.  She was at Port Said, November 29, 1919, later at Tripoli, and returned on May 23, 1920.  She is now at the Sea View Hospital, Staten Island, New York City as Director of Occupational Therapy.

 

 

 

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Blackman

Blanche S.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Blackman, Blanche A. (Miss), of New York, sailed on February 16, 1919.  She started the nurses' training school at Marsovan, and came home April 22, 1920.  She is now Superintendent of Nurses at the Broad Street Hospital, 129 Broad Street, New York City.

Middle initial A. in Barton

Bliss

Amy A.

"

"

(Miss), of Baldwinsville New York, started overseas on February 16, 1919.  She was appointed to Harput where she did hospital work.  Returning, she left Constantinople on May 15, 1920 and reached America June 21, 1920.

 

Boberg

Stanley G.

 

 

Signed on from Camp Lee, Virginia as a laboratory assistant.  His appointment took him to Marsovan, whence he returned April 22, 1920.  He is now a bank official in Chicago, his address being 8035 Eberhart Avenue.

 

Bond

Louise

"

"

Bond, S. M. Louise (Miss), registering from New Haven, Connecticut, joined Near East Relief in February 1919.  She was valuable in Kars in the Caucasus.  When released in June 1920, she went to England.  She is now in America, living at Riverdale-on-Hudson, New York.

 

Bradley

Sabra C.

"

"

Bradley, Sabra Claire (Miss), of Fulton, Missouri, sailed with the "Leviathan" party of February 16, 1919 and was assigned to Samsoun.  Later work took her to Constantinople and Ismid.  She reached home September 11, 1921.  She is now teaching at Tucson, Arizona, her address being P. O. Box 866.

 

Bristol

Elsey L.

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Brown

Anna E.

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Brown

Mary M.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Burt

Amy A.

"

"

"

Listed in Barton as Mrs. Amy Anthony Burt

Bury

Elizabeth A.

"

"

(Miss), of North Coventry, Connecticut enlisted with Near East Relief as a nurse and sailed on February 16, 1919.  She served at Erivan and Harput, remaining at the latter difficult post (where at one time she was a sufferer from typhus) until April 30, 1922, when she went to Constantinople.  She arrived in America April 28, 1923 and be addressed at 168 Chaplin Street, Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

 

Carr

Gladys

 M.D.

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Patterson, Gladys M. Carr – (Dr.; Mrs. William B. Patterson), of Massachusetts went as Dr. Carr on the "Leviathan" with the medical force as roentgenologist.  She covered the entire field installing, supervising and teaching X-Ray work in the various hospitals.  She returned November 28, 1919.  Dr. Carr - Patterson may be addressed 327 West 78th Street, New York City.

Barton says now Mrs. William B. Patterson

Carruth

Clara L.

Civilian

"

(Miss), of Bloomfield, New Jersey, started for Erivan with the "Leviathan" party.  Her work was secretarial.  She came home May 17, 1920 and is now acting as assistant in the Department of Religious Education at Yale University.  Her address is 90 York Square, New Haven, Connecticut.

Barton says now Mrs. O. G. Reuman


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Carter

Isabel  

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Carter, Isabel Hopestill (Miss), of East Orange, New Jersey, interested in industrial work, started for Constantinople on February 16, 1919, with the Wellesley Unit.  She severed her connection with Near East Relief on July 17, 1920.  At the moment she is in Yarmouth, Maine reading mathematics and writing. 

Not listed in Barton

Chamberlain   

Louise H.

"

"

Isaac, Louise H. Chamberlain — (Mrs. Emerson Isaac) of Cleveland, Ohio, sailed on Frbruary 16, 1919.  She was sent to Erivan on a hospital assignment.  There she met Emerson Isaac, whom she married after her return to America which was in January, 1920.  Mrs. Isaac's present address is 925 East Morton Street, New Castle, PA.

"

Clark

Alice K.

"

"

(Miss), of Evanston, Illinois, went with the "Leviathan" party and taught at Hadjin.  During the more than six months' siege of the town [,] the American compound was captured by the Turks but the diplomacy of the Near East Relief people protected the 300 orphans from the attackers.  For several days the Near East Relief personnel and several missionaries were forced to live in a closet under the stairs.  When the Turks recaptured the buildings on June 13, the inmates were taken to a Turkish camp and held for two days before being sent on to Caesarea.  Miss [Edith] Cold and Miss [Mary] Super shared the exciting experiences.  Miss Clark left Constantinople for the U.S.A. July 10, 1920 and is now living at 1217 Forest Avenue, Evanston, Illinois.

Barton lists as Alice Clark


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Clements

Colin C.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

of New York, a member of the "Leviathan" party, looked after educational work in Urfa.  He prepared a text book for use in orphanage schools.  In May 1920, he left Beirut for Paris.  He is now living in Boston at 118 Mt. Vernon Street.  His occupation being that of dramatist and author.

 

Cold

Edith

"

"

(Miss), of Oberlin, Ohio, went out on February 16, 1919, and was appointed to Hadjin.  With Miss Alice Clark and Miss [Mary] Super  she endured the siege of the town being fired on by the Turks when she carried a white flag into the compound of the orphanage.  With the others she made her way to Talas and on to Constantinople

 

Cook

Elinor  M.

"

"

McDowell, E. W. (Mrs.) served in the Urumia District at Tabriz and at Baghdad.

Barton says now Mrs. Robert H. McDowell.  Her husband was McDowell, E. W. (Dr., served in Bagdad as Near East Relief Director.  In the autumn of 1922 he went to Constantinople with the Nestorian Mission.  In the early summer of 1923 he reached New York.  He and Mrs. McDowell may be addressed care Presbyterian Board of Missions, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

Cooley

Margaret

"

"

(Miss), of Berkeley, Calif., did relief work at Baku during 1919.  Her address is 2241 Glen Avenue, Berkeley, California.

Not listed in Barton

Cooper

Stella I.

"

"

Not listed

"


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Corning

Sarah (Br)

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Hanover, New Hampshire, sailed on February 16, 1919.  She was billeted to Erivan for hospital service.  Stationed at Marsovan Miss Corning did a [sic] distinguished humanitarian work.  She was in Smyrna in October after the disaster and from there went to Greece in January of 1923.  In September she was in Oropos and reached America in December 1923, after an absence of nearly five years.  She is now visiting her friends and resting.  Her address being Chegoggin, Yarmouth Country, Nova Scotia.

 

 

Coughlin

Mary E.

"

"

 Peterson, Mary E. Coughlin (Mrs. Axel S. Peterson), of Massachusetts, as Miss Coughlin, joined the nursing personnel on the "Leviathan" and was sent to Adana.  There she was in charge of the clinic in the orphanage through the winter of 1919-1920.  In the Spring she went to the island of Proti and was transferred to the Red Cross (May 18, 1920), which took over the care of the Russian refugees on that island.  Mrs. Peterson is now living at 1200 South Carlisle Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Barton says now Mrs. Axel S. Peterson


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Curry

Gladys A. (Br)

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Curry, Gladys Alma (Miss), went to Aintab and Beirut, sailing with the "Leviathan" party.  She returned to America in early 1920, but soon went overseas again and in 1922 was a volunteer with Near East Relief in Constantinople.  Her permanent address on the side of the water is care U.S. Motrgag & Trust Co., Madison Avenue and 74th Street, New York City.

Barton lists as Gladys Curry

Dando

Anna

"

"

Parmelee, Anna Dando - Mrs. H. C., of Frostburgh, Md., as Miss Dando, joined the "Leviathan" party of February 16, 1919.  She was assigned to Mardin, August 1919, and in October, 1919 was transferred to Diarbekir where she aided in opening the hospital.  On July 9, 1920, she reached home once more.  Mrs. Parmelee is now living in Sanford, Florida (Route A).

Barton says now Mrs. H. Parmelee

Dasey 

Miriam           

"

"

Dasey, Miriam K. (Miss), of New Haven, Conn., started for Constantinople on February 16, 1919.  She worked at Constantinople as Secretary to the Medical Division, and at Derindje in charge of medical supplies and returned to America, October 19, 1920.  She is now Registrar of the School of Medicine of Yale University and may be addressed, Sterling Hall of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Con.

Barton lists as Miriam K. Dasey

Daum 

W. Fletcher

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Daum 

Sue May

"

"

"

Barton lists as Mrs. W. Fletcher


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Davidson

Mildred E.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Ramsey, Nj. sailed for the Derindje station on February 16, 1919.  She did hospital work and returned June 12, 1920.  She is now teaching in the High School in Hackensack, N.J., her home address being Ramsey, N.J.

 

Dixon 

Margaret E.

"

"

Brown, Margaret E. Dixon – (Mrs. Wendell D. Brown), of Hackensack, New Jersey, left this side on February 16, 1919, and was appointed to Sivas as a stenographer.  She married Wendell W. Brown, returned to this country, and is now living as given at the right.

Her husband was Brown, Wendell W., of Yonkers, New York, sailed April 23, 1919, and served at Oulou Kishla.  He married Margaret E. Dixon at Constantinople on January 15, 1920, and they returned to this country February 22, 1920.  He is now farming at Boonton, New Jersey and may be addressed, R. F. D. 1.

Doherty [read

Dougherty?]

Minnie E.

"

"

Dougherty, Minnie E. (Miss), sailed on February 16, 1919.  She was assigned to Marash as a teacher in the industrial department.  She was one of the staff caught in the Near East orphanage during the siege of the town when Armenians and French were attacked by Turks for some three or four weeks.  She returned on May 24, 1920, and is now at her home, 137 Suffolk Street, Holyoke, Mass.

Barton lists as Minnie E. Dougherty


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Downer

Lilla De Mar

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Montclair, N.J. crossed with the "Leviathan" party and was assigned to Harput.  There she established a school for subnormal children, the first of its kind in Turkey.  Owing to serious eye trouble Miss Downer was obliged to return to America in September, 1920.  She is now living in Boston.  She may be addressed care Near East Relief, 151 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

 

Dudley

Stowell B.

M.D.

"

(Dr.), of Weiser, Idaho, was one of the "Leviathan" party.  Registered as medical director his assignment took him to Mardin where he did a difficult and valuable piece of work in rehabilitating an old hospital.  In addition to his work as a physician Dr. Dudley was director of the Mardin Unit, which included industrial work, agriculture, road building and the general care and employment of the orphans and refugees.  When Mardin was organized Dr. Dudley went to Beirut (December 13, 1919) whence he returned to the United States, April 190, 1920.  He is now at Caldwell, Idaho, occupied as a Physical Director.

Barton lists as Dr. Stowell Dudley

Dunaway

John A.

Civilian

"

of New Bloomfield, Pa., started for Aleppo on February 16, 1919, to do publicity and relief work.  He returned to America March 23, 1920.  After marrying Miss Rose Shayeb, he went overseas again with his wife.  Upon their return to the United States they were attached to National Headquarters for over a year.  At present Mr. Dunaway is in Persia with the Millspaugh Financial Commission. 

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Easton

Blanche S.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

 

Barton says now Mrs. Joseph W. Beach

Eckert 

Elizabeth A.

"

"

(Miss), of Bolton, Mass., crossed on February 16, 1919, to do secretarial and relief work in the Beirut Area.  She returned on September 12, 1920.  She is now at Hsiku, Tientsin, China, where she may be addressed, care Mr. Robert Chandler, American Board of Missions.

 

Eddy

Sylvia G.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Eddy, Silvia T. (Miss), of Simsbury, Conn., sailed June 24, 1919, [sic] to do hospital work.  Her assignment was Mardin.  She was in Aintab during the siege and in Beirut in August of 1920 leaving Beirut on September 30 for America, which she reached November 12, 1921.  She is now living in Simsbury, Conn., and doing nursing.

She apparently missed taking the "Leviathan"

Eldred 

Irene R.

"

"

Eldred, Irene (Miss), who signed on from Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass., registered for social work and crossed with the "Leviathan" party.  She was sent to Tarsus where Near East Relief then had a relief station and orphanage.  She served later at Adana.  July 10, 1920 was the date of her departure from Constantinople for home.  She is now Educational Secretary for the W.Y.C.A., her address being 37 1/2 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.

Barton lists as Irene Eldred


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Elliott 

Mabel E.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Dr.), of Benton Harbor, Michigan, steamed on February 16, 1919.  She headed the Marash Unit, May 17, 1919.  On January 21, 1920, the Turks broke loose in the town.  Dr. Elliott evacuated the hospital on the night of February 10.  She went out with the French, two nurses, a worker, one Y.M.C.A. man, Mr. [Rev. Charles F. H.] Crathern, and 5,000 refugees, half of whom died from exposure to cold and snow before the end of the three days' march.  On May 23, 1920, Dr. Elliott returned to America.  Going back five months later under an arrangement between Near East Relief and the American Women's Hospitals, Dr. Elliott in January 1921 established at Ismid an up-to-date hospital with attached clinics, nurses' training classes and a soup kitchen.  At the beginning of September, 1921, she went to the Caucasus on a medical inspection trip.  Returning to Ismid she transferred her personal work in October, 1921, to the Caucasus.  Immediately after the Smyrna disaster (September, 1922) she was send to Mitylene to aid the refugees who manage to reach that island.  In November, 1922, she was made Medical Director of Near East Relief in Greece, establishing seven Near East Relief hospitals and many clinics in various parts of Greece and the islands.  She was appointed by the Greek government to carry on a quarantine station on Macronissi Island for the refugees from Anatolia.  Greece has decorated Dr. Elliott with the silver cross

 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Elliott

(continued)

Mabel E.

M.D.

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

of  St. George, the gold cross of St. George, and the Greek Croix de Guerre.  She returned to America, October 1, 1923.  Since then she has been speaking for Near East Relief in many states.  She may be addressed care Near East Relief, 151 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

 

Emrich

Richard S. M.

Civilian

"

Not listed

 

Emrich

Mrs. Richard S. M.

"

"

"

Listed  in Barton as Mrs. R.S. Emrich  (Jeanette W.[allace] [Emrich]

Emrich

Richard S.

"

"

"

Barton says Richard Stanley Emrich

Emrich

Wallace C.

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Emrich

Duncan B. M.

"

"

"

"


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Everett

Bernice J.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Franklin, New York, sailed on February 16, 1919, with the Wellesley Unit.  In September, 1920, she was the head of the Personnel House in Constantinople, but her service was chiefly as director of the Broussa Unit in the town where the Wellesley Fund was expended.  During the three years of her connection with Broussa [,] Miss Everett developed the schools, expanded the industrial activities, aided the refugees driven from their homes by the Nationalist uprisings, trained 1,300 orphans, and aided in the transfer of several hundreds to the Near East Relief orphanage in Bardizag.  She was decorated by the Greek Red Cross in 1921.  In June, 1920 she was in Bulgaria for  a short time.  March 13, 1922, saw her started from Constantinople for America.  She is now living at 76 Hoyle Street, Norwood, Mass., doing some class teaching. 

Not listed in Barton

Farrington

Mabel 

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Hahn, Mabel Farrington – (Mrs. L. H. Hahn (sic), of Claremont, Calif., sailed on February 16, 1919.  She served at Kars and Alexandropol (January, 1920) and returned to America in the summer of 1920.  She is now Mrs. J. H. Hahn  and is living at El Monte, Calif.

Barton says now Mrs. L. G. Hahn

Fees    

Ruby C.

"

"

                Not listed

Barton says now Mrs. R. C. McGibbon

Fenenga

Agnes 

"

"

                     

Listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Fischer

Caroline

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Fisher, Caroline (Mrs. Paul B. Fisher), went out to Broussa at the same time as her husband for educational service.  She came home in October, 1919. 

Not listed in Barton

Fischer

Paul B.

"

"

went to Broussa as an administrator, sailing February 16, 1919 and returned to America July 15, 1920.  He may be addressed 416 North Main Street, Wheaton, Ill.

 

Fisher 

Faye

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Flynn 

Marcella K.

"

"

Rice, Marcella Katherine Flynn – (Mrs.), of Pennsylvania, as Miss Flynn, was another member of the nursing personnel of the "Leviathan".  She was stationed at Sivas in charge of the operating room at the hospital.  She returned to the States June 29, 1920, and now, as Mrs. Rice, is living at 2424 W. Columbia Avenue, Philadelphia.

 

Foreman         

Lucille

"

"

                   Not listed

Barton lists as Lucile

Fowle 

Anna H.

"

"

                        

Not listed in Barton

Fowle 

Theodore W.  

"

"

                        

Listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Fowle 

Wilson F.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

of Bethlehem, Pa., crossed in the "Leviathan" February 16, 1919, and suffered an accident near Derindje before taking up his assignment at Oulou Kishla.  In May, 1920 he underwent an operation in Constantinople and in July went as supercargo on a boat for Mersine laiden with flour for Adana.  He remained with the Adana Unit during the summer and autumn, reaching Constantinople in early November, 1920.  Released from Near East Relief, he is at present with the Standard Oil in Beirut.

 

Frank  

Sadie A.          

"

"

(Miss), of Nashville, Tenn., signed with Near East Relief from Plattsburg, N.Y.  She sailed on February 16, 1919, and was assigned to do relief at Akhalkalaki.  She reached the U.S. April 29, 1920.  She is now a journalist and is living at 327 West 75th Street, New York City.

 

French

Frances E.      

"

"

Not listed

Barton lists as F. Elma

Fridy  

Thomas A.     

"

"

who signed on from the Medical Department, Base Hospital, Camp Lee, Va., sailed on the "Leviathan."  He served in Erivan for over a year, left Batoum homeward bound on May 3, 1920, and reached the States August 20, 1920.  He may be addressed Brookville, Fla.

 

Frost  

Elizabeth

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Fuller  

Wilfred J.

[Dr]

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Fuller, Wilfred Joy (D.D.S) of  Somerville, Mass., went across on February 16, 1919, with a roving commission.  During his service, which ended April 3, 1920, he visited every station.  He is now practicing as a physician and dentist at 134 College Avenue, Somerville, Mass.

Barton lists as Dr. Wilfred J. Fuller

Gallant

Clara L. (Br)

Civilian

"

(Miss), of Arlington, Mass. went over on February 16, 1919, and did hospital work in Aleppo.  For some time she ran a dispensary for refugees in the heart of the city. 

 

Gannaway      

C. R.

[M.D.?]

"

Not listed

Barton lists as Dr. Charles Gannaway

Gannaway

Ruby R.

"

"

"

Barton lists as Mrs. Charles R. Gannaway

Gittings

Ina E.  

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Gittings, Ina E. (Miss), of Nebraska and New York, shipped on the "Leviathan" on February 16, 1919.  She was sent to Tarsus and Adana.  She returned June 25, 1920.  At present she is a professor and may be addressed at University Station, Tucson, Arizona.

 

Graham

Eunice B.

"

"

Not listed in Team Work

Barton says now Mrs. F. E. Skinner


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Greene

Esther 

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Greene, Esther F. (Miss), of Providence, R.I. joined the "Leviathan" party and went to Malatia with the Smith Unit which administered there a home for

Defectives, an Armenian orphanage and an Industrial Department.  While a member of the Harpoot Unit Miss Greene was robbed by bandits.  She was in Constantinople in June, 1920, acting as Chairman of the Committed for Industrial Work and General Relief, and a year later started for home.  She is now General Secretary of the Rhode Island Society for Mental Hygiene, her office being at 118 North Main Street, Providence, R.I.

Barton lists as Ester F. Greene

Greene

Olive  

"

"

                     Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Guest 

Elma   

"

"

Balise, Elma Cakefair Guest – (Mrs. Peter Balise), of New Haven, Connecticut, sailed on February 16, 1919.  The end of the year found her in Malatia from which she was transferred to Aleppo.  She returned June 18, 1920 and is now living at Hadley, Massachusetts (P.O. Box 444) attending to her duties as a housewife.

Barton says now Mrs. Peter Balise

Hall    

Robert L.

"

 "

                  Not listed

Not listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Harman

Byron M.

M.D.

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

…(Dr.), of New Jersey, crossed with the "Leviathan" party February 16, 1919 and was billeted to the Caucasus.  There he served as physician at Tiflis, Shusha and Karaklis, at the latter place meeting his future wife Mrs. Willie Maie Hunter.  They were married in May 1920, and returned by way of France to America which they reached July 9, 1920.  Dr. Harman is now Superintendent of the Essex Mountain Sanitarium, Verona, N.J.

Harman, Willie Maye Hunter – (Mrs. B. M. Harman), of Picayune, Miss., left on Nov. 5, 1919, for hospital Karaklis.  Married to Dr. Harman she now lists herself as "housewife."  [For address see column to the left.]

Harris 

Elizabeth

Civilian

"

(Miss), of Albany, N.Y., sailed on the "Leviathan" February 16, 1919, and did orphan investigation during April and May, 1919 at Marash whence she was transferred to Aintab.  After the siege began in April, 1920 she and several others managed to reach Aleppo under military escort, on April 23.  She reached America July 23, 1920.  Miss Harris is now studying in Boston, Mass., her address being 87 St. Stephen Street.

 

Harvey

Florence

"

"

(Miss.), left America with the "Leviathan" party and was assigned to Smyrna to do relief and industrial work.  She arrived in Constantinople from Smyrna April 2, 1920, and took charge of the Acorne Shop.  She severed her connection with Near East Relief in June, 1920.  She may be addressed at Orono, Maine.

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Headlee

Frances K.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Headlee, Frances King (Mrs.), of Spokane, Wash., sailed on February 16, 1919, and did administrative work in Smyrna.  In March, 1920 she was transferred to Y.M.C.A. at Athens.  On December 4, 1920, she returned to the United States.  Mrs. Headlee is now living at Laguna Beach, Calif., where she Curator of the Art Gallery and art editor of "Laguna Life." 

 

Heizer

Beatrice

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Heizer

Ida W.

"

"

"

Barton says Ida Wright Heizer(Mrs. O. S. Heizer)

Heizer

Vivian 

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Henry 

Ruth W.

"

"

(Miss), went with the Smith Unit of workers supported by Smith College on the "Leviathan" on February 16, 1919.  She was assigned to Erivan and worked at Etchmiadzin.  June, 1920 found her Director of the Unit at Adana where she was under fire in the summer of 1920 and on January 1, 1921 she left Constantinople on her return to the States which she reached on the last day of the month.  She is now teaching in Amherst, Mass., her former home.

 

Hewitt

Candace

"

"

(Miss), of New York City, left for Konia on February 16, 1919.  She returned March 18, 1920, and may be addressed 127 East 21st Street, New York City.

 

Higdon

Aimee V.

"

"

Not listed

Barton says now Mrs. John C. Higdon

Higdon

John C.

"

"

"

Listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Hill

Justina H.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Spartanburg, S.C., classed as a bacteriologist, went with the "Leviathan" party.  She was assigned to Harpoot.  She returned to America June 18, 1920 and is now engaged in research work in Baltimore, Md.  Her address is 1728 St. Paul Street.

 

Hinson

Orrie A.

"

"

Hinson, Orrie A. (Mrs. W. J. Hinson), of Swainsboro, Ga., went with the "Leviathan" party.  She did secretarial work in Constantinople and came back June 12, 1920.  She is now manager of the Commercial Department and Secretary to an attorney in Swainsboro, Ga.

Barton says Mrs. Orrie A. Hinson

Hoffman

Edith V.

"

"

Erazian, Edith Hoffman – (Mrs.), of Altoona, Pa., went overseas on February 16, 1919, to do hospital work in the Caucasus.  She served in Erivan and Etchmiadzin and returned to the United Stated in June, 1920.  Her address is 729 Second Avenue, Juanita Station, Altoona, Pa.

Barton says now Mrs. Edith H. Erazian


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Holmes

Mary C.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of New York City, started overseas on February 16, 1919, and was detailed to Urfa.  Her experiences, told in her book, "Between the Lines,"  included the directorship of a crowded orphanage and its management throughout the siege of the town when the Turks and French fought fiercely and the Near East Relief people were cut off from supplies and food.  In 1921 she moved the children to Syria.  In July, 1922, she reached America.  Miss Holmes received the Croix de Guerre with palm in acknowledgement of her aid to the French in Urfa.  At the moment she is living in New York City (2064 Harrison Avenue, the Bronx), and giving addresses for Near East Relief.

Barton lists as Mary Caroline Holmes

Holt

Sophia S.

"

"

Holt, Sophie S. (Miss), of Somerville, Mass., a former A.B.C.F.M. Missionary, sailed on the "Leviathan" and went to Ismid where she started an orphanage which grew under her care for three years.  She returned to America June 16, 1922, and is now attached to the Near East Relief Wisconsin Office, 930 Caswell Block, Milwaukee, Wis.

 

Hubbard

Mary

"

"

(Miss), of White Plains, New York, went over with the "Leviathan" party of February 16, 1919, and was assigned to Sivas.  She worked at Caesarea.  She left Constantinople for home by way of Marseilles on July 28, 1920.  She may be addressed 29 Lafayette Street, White Plains, N.Y.

 

Hulburt

Winifred

"

"

                 Not listed

Not listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Huntington

Frances

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Le Bouvier, Frances Huntington – (Mrs. Louis Le Bouvier), of Connecticut, crossed on the "Leviathan" to do hospital work in Konia.  She married Captain Le Bouvier, March 16, 1920, and is now living in Constantinople, occasionally doing special pieces of work for Near East Relief.

Barton lists as le Bouvier

Husch 

Sylvester B.

M.D.

"

went over on the "Leviathan" with the medical personnel to do work in the various Near East Relief areas.  His present address 67 West 12th Street, New York City.

Barton lists as Dr. Sylvester Husch

James 

Mildred

Civilian

"

Not listed in Team Work

Listed in Barton

Jameson

Elsie

"

"

(Miss), of New York City, was a member of the "Leviathan" party and was assigned to the Beirut Area to do work in nursing and hygiene.  She served at Aintab.  At present she is a dietitian, her address being 37 East 76th Street, New York City.

 

Janson

Leah M.

"

"

(Miss), of Brooklyn, N.Y., went overseas February 16, 1919.  She served at Constantinople and Proti and came home June 12, 1920.  She is now in the N.N.C. [Navy Nurse Corps] attached to the U.S.N. Hospital at Mare Island, Calif.

 

Jarrett 

Margaret C. (Br)

"

"

Not listed in Team Work

Listed in Barton

Jenks  

Agnes 

"

"

Not listed in Team Work

Barton lists as Mrs. Barton P. Jenks


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Kelsey

Lincoln D.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

of Springfield, Mass. went over on February 16, 1919 and aided in the establishment of agricultural activities Marsovan.  He returned April 22, 1920 and is now a Farm Bureau Manager with an address at 93 Court House, Albany, N.Y.

 

Kelsey

Alice G.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

Kelsey, Alice Geer – (Mrs. Lincoln D. Kelsey), crossed as above to do relief work at Marsovan.  Mrs. Kelsey is now keeping house for her husband and her two small children at the above address.

Barton lists as Alice Geer Kelsey (Mrs. Lincoln D.)

Kerr

Stanley E.

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Kershner

Dora

"

"

"

"

Kifer

Mary B.

"

"

"

"


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

King

Rachel

"

"

Martin, Rachel King – (Mrs. Edward F. Martin), of New York City went across with the "Leviathan" party starting from New York February 16, 1919.  Her work was sanitary, hygienic and nursing in Caesarea.  A year after her arrival she started for America but found conditions so disturbed as to make traveling dangerous so she went back to her post.  In May 1921 she was in Constantinople filling a three months' contract.  October saw her in America where she married Edward F. Martin and returned with him to the Near East. … While Mr. Martin was stationed in the Caucasus Mrs. Martin ran the Personnel House for a while and did some nursing.  She may be addressed care Rev. J. S. King, Little Britain, Orange Co., N. Y.

Edward F. Martin of Wisconsin, signed with Near East Relief in Paris.  In July 1919, he was assigned to the Supply Base at Oulou Kishla where he arrived in August.  Later he went to Caesarea where he took charge of the Boys' Industrial School.  In May, 1921 he was connected with the Transportation Department in Constantinople and in September returned to America where he married Miss Rachel King, whose acquaintance he had made in Caesarea.  Together they returned in December of the same year, Mr. Martin taking the post of Director of the Warehouses at Derindje.  In June 1923 he closed them, transferring the remaining supplies to Ortakeuy.  That accomplished the Martins went to Alexandropol where Mr. Martin was Superintendent of Transportation.  Released in November 1923 , Mr. and Mrs. Martin reached America in January, 1924.  They may be addressed care Rev. J. S. King, Little Britain, Orange Co., N.Y.


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Knox

Blanche

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Germantown, Pa., went across with the "Leviathan" party to do hospital work.  She served Erivan.  On September 5, 1920 she reached America and is now teaching in the Training School for Nurses with the Germantown Hospital, East Penn Street, Germantown, Philadelphia.

 

Knox

Gertrude E.

"

"

(Miss), of Providence, R.I., with the "Leviathan" party and worked in Samsoun.  She served there until September, 1920, and then went to Constantinople to teach in the College for Girls.  She came home September 11, 1921, and may be addressed 26 Jenckes Street, Providence, R.I.

Barton says now Mrs. Wells

Lambert

Robert A.

M.D.

"

(Dr.), of New York City secured the first party of medical personnel at Near East Relief and sailed with them on the "Leviathan" (February 16, 1919) as Laboratory Director with Dr. George L. Richards.  Taking along supplies that had preceded the party and then unloaded at Derindje, a complete hospital unit was started into the interior of Turkey.  The main supply of material was left at Adana and Dr. Lambert went on to Aleppo where he was chief laboratory worker and Medical Director.  Later he became director of the district North Syria with stations Alexandretta, Aintab, Marash, Urfa, Diarbekir and Mardin.  He reached the United States September 1, 1920.  He is now in Sčo Paulo, Brazil, at the Instituto Anatomo-Pathologico de Falcultade de Medicina e Cirurgia.

Barton lists as Dr. Robert A. Lambert


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Larson

Pearl G.

Civilian

American Committee  for Relief in the Near East

(Mrs.), of Chicago, Ill., crossed on the "Leviathan" and went to the Harpoot district.  In January, 1920 she went to Malatia where she cleaned and clothed several hundred refugees in addition to her taxing hospital work.  She returned September 5, 1920 and is now doing field work for Near East Relief in Pennsylvania.  Address Near East Relief, Broad and Locust Streets, Philadelphia, Pa..

Barton says now Mrs. David A. McKee

Law

Louise M.

"

"

Law, Mary Louise (Miss), of Staten Island, N.Y., one of the "Leviathan" passengers became one of the Urfa Unit serving during the siege and later was the matron of the Near East Relief orphanage at Tripoli.  Returning in June, 1921, she went back in October the same year and served in Aintab and Sidon.  She was transferred to the Presbyterian Board of Missions with which she is still affiliated.  Address in its care 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

Barton lists as Mary Louise Law

Lawrence

Alfred A.

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Lawrence

Arthur L.

"

"

"

"

Lawrence

Galeb [read Caleb] W.

"

"

"

Barton lists as Prof. Caleb W. Lawrence

Lawrence

Edward W. (11 yrs.)  

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Lawrence

Helen

"

"

"

"

Lawrence

Henry K. (6 yrs.)

"

"

"

"

Lawrence

Ralph K. (3 yrs.)

"

"

"

"

Locke 

Ethel M.

"

"

"

Barton lists as Ethel M. Lecke (now Mrs. W. A. Stoltzfus)


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Lightbody

Elsbeth M. (Br)

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Lightbody, Elspeth M. (Miss), of New York City, steamed on February 16, 1919.  She was assigned to Kars for nursing work.  She is now acting as Assistant  Directress of Nurses in the State Hospital, Scranton, Pa. 

Barton lists as Elspeth Lightbody

Loughbridge   

Stella N.

"

"

Loughridge, Stella N. (Miss), of Nebraska and New York City went with the "Leviathan" party and was assigned to Talas and Caesarea.  She became Director of Orphanages in the Caesarea District and later served temporarily at Sivas.  In the course of much traveling in the interior Miss Loughridge had experiences with bandits.  She aided in bringing out many orphans at the time of the deportations.  Before returning to America (which she reached August 20, 1923) she was established at the Girls' Orphanage at Juniyeh.  Miss Loughridge is now in Los Angeles, Calif. (4611 Welch Place), resting and preparing to return to Turkey.

Barton lists as Loughridge

Mack  

Margaret L.

"

"

(Miss), of Rockland, Co., N.Y., joined the nursing personnel on the "Leviathan" and went to the Caucasus where she served at Erivan and Tiflis and in Shusha during the hostilities.  In October, 1919, she was in Batoum in charge of 6,000 refugees, working with only native helpers.  She came back February 16, 1920 and is now doing relief work in Hillburn, Rockland Co., N.Y.

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

MacDaniels

Laurence H.    

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

MacDaniels, Laurence H., of Dorchester, Mass., went with the "Leviathan" party and was booked to establish the agricultural work at Harpoot.  He returned to this country July 15, 1920, is now on the teaching staff of Cornell University and is living at 422 Chestnut Street, Ithaca, N.Y.

 

MacDaniels

Frances C.

"

"

(Mrs. Laurence H. MacDaniels) sailed at the same time.  She did clerical work at Harpoot.  See above.

 

MacIntosh

Mabel D.

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

MacLean

Christina M. (Br)

"

"

Barton lists as Christine MacLean

Magee

James R.

"

"

of Pennsylvania, joined the relief workers of the "Leviathan" party and went to the Beirut Area.  His duties were performed at Shuf and he returned to the United States May 16, 1920.  He is now an Internal  Revenue Agent at Denver, Colo., 203 Custom House.

 

Marden

Etta D.

"

"

Not listed in Team Work

Not listed in Barton

Marvin

Henry M.

M.D.

"

Marvin, Harold M. (Dr.), of Florida, joined Near East Relief from the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, being listed among the medical personnel that went over on the "Leviathan."  He was assigned to the Caucusus and ministered to the medical needs of Alexandropol, Karaklis and Kars.  He returned home in July, 1920.  He is now doing medical teaching at the New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Conn.

Barton lists as Dr. Harold M. Marvin


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Mason

Louise J.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Mason, J. Louise (Dr.), of Boston, joined the "Leviathan" party and went to Ordu.  For more than a year she did relief work there where both Armenian and Greek orphanages were administered from Trebizond.  She returned to America June 7, 1920.  She is now living at 191 Newbury Street, Brockton, Mass., and acting as High School physician.  Her permanent address is Falmouth, Mass.

Barton lists as J. Louise Mason

McCarthy

Peter T.

M.D.

"

(Dr), of Montana and Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, Mass., joined the Near East Relief medical personnel on the "Leviathan" for work at Adana where he was Surgeon-in-charge.  His hospital clinic and field work was extensive.  After the evacuation of Marash in February, 1920, many operations were necessary upon refugees whose feet had been frozen by their long tramp through the snow.  Dr. McCarthy left Adana on March 8, 1920 reaching home May 30, 1920.  He is now settled in Missoula, Mont., 46 Higgins Block, practicing as physician and surgeon. 

Barton lists as Dr. Peter T. McCarthy

McGwigan

Maud K.

Civilian

"

McGwigan, Maude M. (Miss), of Muscatine, Iowa, sailed on the "Leviathan" with the nursing personnel.  She was assigned to Marsovan.  She reached the states August 24, 1920.  In 1922 she went to China where she is now attached to a hospital in Tientsin, Shantung Province.

Barton lists as Maud M. McGwigan

McIntosh

William P.

M.D.?

"

Not listed

Barton lists as Dr. William P. McIntosh

McKay

Janet M. (Br) 

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

McMichael    

Bessie B.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Smith Belle B. McMichael – (Mrs,) registered from Erie, Pa, when, as Miss McMichael, she enlisted with Near East Relief and started overseas on February 16, 1916.  She was stationed at Mardin where she was in charge of the children's orphanage.  She returned July 9, 1920.  Mrs. Smith is now living at 2993 Whitney Avenue, Detroit, Mich.

Barton says Belle B. McMichael (now Mrs. B. M. Smith)

McNeill

Martha F.

"

"

MacNeill, Martha Foster (Miss), of New York City went on the "Leviathan" and was sent to Aleppo.  She was given charge of the workwomen in Aleppo industrial rooms and did not come back until July 15, 1920.  She is now connected with the New York State Office of Near East Relief and is living at 1020 Woodycrest Avenue, New York City.

Not listed in Barton

Meeks

Nelson P.

"

"

of New York City was on the "Leviathan's" list, booked for relief work.  He served at Tiflis, Erivan and Alexandropol and returned March 7, 1921.  He may be addressed care Mrs. F. P. Meeks, 52 Tuckahoe Road, Yonkers, N.Y.

 

Merrill

Winnefred E.

"

"

Merrill, Winifred Ellen (Miss), of Boston, trained as teacher and orphanage matron, crossed on the "Leviathan."  Later she billeted to Beirut.  She returned to America August 1920, and is now in Boston, Mass., 112 Jersey Street, teaching English to foreigners.

Barton lists Winifred E. Merrill


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Miller 

Ernest

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Miller Ernest E., of Chicago, Ill., with experience as quartermaster agriculturist and superintendent of a boy's home, went on the "Leviathan."  He was assigned to Mardin.  He came home May 16, 1920.  He is now serving as a missionary at Dhamtari, C.P., India.

Barton lists as Ernest H. Miller.

Mills

Blanche

"

Mills, Blanche E. (Miss), of Berkeley, Calif., went across with the "Leviathan" party.  After more than a year of hospital work in Erivan she came back to America in September, 1920.  Her present address is 2521 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, Calif.

Barton lists as Blanche E. Mills

Mitchell

Edwin K.

"

Mitchell, Edwin Knox, of Hartford, Con., returned to the States on November 25, 1919, from service in Alexandropol.  He may be addressed care Prof. Edwin K. Mitchell 57 Gillett Street, Hartford, Conn. 

 

Mitchell

Elsie R.

M.D.

"

(Dr.), of Berkeley, Calif., crossed on the "Leviathan" with the medical personnel.  Stationed in the Caucasus she served at Etchmiadzin and Erivan during the period when the refugee situation was terrific and just a beginning was made with orphanage work.  Dr. Mitchell is now living in California but may be reached by addressing her 228 East 9th Street, Plainfield, N.J.

Barton lists as Dr. Elsie R. Mitchell


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Moore

Alice

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Chicago, Ill., was a member of the Smith College Unit when she sailed on February 16, 1919.  The Smith Unit took over the work at Malatia with its varied activities – an Armenian Orphanage, a Home for Defectives and an Industrial Department among them.  In June, 1920, Miss Moore was re-assigned to the Samsoun Unit.  She started for home November 15, 1920 and is now living in Santa Paula, Calif., (P.O. Box 743), where she is doing secretarial work.

 

Morgan

Alfred L.

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Morgan

Alice

"

"

"

                

Morgan

Janet E. (Br)

"

"

Morgan, J. Edith (Miss), of Montclair, N.J., sailed February 16, 1919, as a member of the nursing personnel of Near East Relief.  Attached to the Corps at Mardin she served during the early and very difficult days.  She returned December 9, 1920.  Her present address is 305 Halsey Street, Newark, N.J., where she is Resident Superintendent of the Newark Female Charitable Society and Director of the Fresh Air Home.

Barton lists as J. Edith Morgan


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Mowbray

Agnes L.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Farnsworth, Agnes Mowbray – (Mrs. Thomas Farnsworth of Montclair, N.J. went across with the "Leviathan" party on February 16, 1919.  She went to Constantinople where she did secretarial and relief work for eighteen months.  She edited the "Acorne," the News Publication of the American Commission of Relief for the Near East, from its beginning until her departure in December 1920.  Now married to Mr. Farnsworth, whose acquaintance she made overseas,  she is living at 63 Evergreen Avenue, Hartford, Conn.

Barton says Agnes Mowbray (now Mrs. Thomas A. Farnsworth.  Teamwork says Thomas F. Farnsworth)

Myer

Leon H

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Newman

Arthur T.

"

"

of New York City, a sanitary engineer, left America with the large party that sailed February 16, 1919.  He was sent to Smyrna where he set up the sanitary machinery in the hospital.  He was a member of the Inter-Allied Sanitary Commission and was advisor on sanitation for the Greek Military Hospital.  He reached the United States January 20, 1920 and may now be addressed 704 Race Street, Cincinnati, Ohio.

 

Niles   

Margaret H.

"

"

(Miss), of Bloomfield, N.J., joined the "Leviathan" group of dietitians and food specialists.  Sent to Harpoot she worked with refugees and orphans.  America saw her again in June, 1920.  She is now a nutrition worker, her address being 57 Clinton Road, Glen Ridge, N.J.

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Noone

Byron M.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Noone, Byron Mortimer, signed with Near East Relief early in 1919, sailing on February 16.  Assigned to Smyrna, Mr. Noone remained there until the closing of the work in January, 1920.  In Constantinople in April he joined Y.M.C.A. for service in Adana.  There he continued after rejoining the Near East Relief (December 1, 1921).  With the evacuation of Cilicia he moved Adana orphans to Tarsus, thence to Mersine and by boat to Constantinople.  He left Adana the following February (1922), to go to Konia to assist Dr. Dodd, and in November, 1922, after the Smyrna disaster, he transferred the Konia orphans – 400 boys and 300 girls – to Greece.  He was in Syra in charge of the boys' camp in April, 1923, and reached America on the first day of November, 1923.  Mr. Noone is now studying at Columbia University, his address being 346 West 57th Street, New York City.

 

Norton

Ellen M.

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Noyes

Fanny G.

"

"

"

"

Olkon

David M.

"

"

"

"

O'Neill

Lillian

"

"

(Miss), was on the roster of Debarkation Hospital No. 2 at Staten Island, New York City when she joined the group of nurses on the "Leviathan."  She was sent to the Caucasus and stationed at Karaklis.  She reached the States June 25, 1920, and may be addressed 143 East 27th Street, New York City. 

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Park

James L.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Dr.), sailed on February 16, 1919, on the "Leviathan."  He was assigned to Mardin, where he managed the boys' orphanage and the laboratory.  He took over the Directorship of the Aintab Unit before the ending of the siege (February, 1921) and was instrumental in restoring some degree of normal living among the people.  In September, 1921, he was connected with the U.S. Consulate at Smyrna where he stayed for a year.  He is now Vice-Consul at Constantinople.

Barton lists Dr. James L. Park

Parmelee

Ruth A.

M.D.

"

(Dr.), of Baltimore, Md., was one of the medical personnel on the "Leviathan."  She was assigned to Harpoot.  There she ran a daily clinic in the city for women and children, shared in the care of the 100 - child home care units of the orphanage, managed the home for girls rescued from Turkish harems, administered the maternity hospital and fought typhus.  Deported from Turkey by the Kemalists in January, 1922, she went via Aleppo and Constantinople to America, May 1922, returning to the Near East late in September and taking up the superintendence of medical work at a refugee camp near Salonica.  She has also taken charge of the industrial work for refugee women established by the American Board at Salonica.  She may be addressed care A.B.C.F.M., 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.

Barton lists as Dr. Ruth A. Parmelee


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Patterson

William B.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

also crossed on the "Leviathan," his work being X-Ray operator.  He went to all areas.  [See Dr. Gladys M. Carr for address]

 

Peabody

Stephen C.

"

"

Peabody, Stephen Clough (Rev.), of Appleton, Wis., sailed on February 16, 1919, for the Near East.  He was stationed at Samsoun.  He came back to the States January 20, 1920.  Rev. Mr. Peabody is a congregational clergyman and may be addressed care Y.M.C.A. of Moline, Ill.

 

Pearson

Gertrude S.

"

"

Geistweit, Gertrude I. Pearson – (Mrs. H. Geistweit), of Oak Park, Illinois, as Miss Pearson made a start on her way to the Near East on February 16, 1919.  She was sent to Erevan where she helped establish a soup kitchen and gather the children into orphanages and schools.  Then she was attached to the Karaklis station.  She came back to the United States July 21, 1920.  Mrs. Geistweit's present address is 520 Barkman Street, San Diego, Calif.

Barton says Gertrude I. Pearson (now Mrs. H. H. Geistweit

Peers

Adeline G.

"

"

Peers, Adeline C. (Miss), of Mississippi, crossed on the "Leviathan," February 16, 1919.  She served in Aleppo and returned to the States August 11, 1920.  Her address at the moment is 1333 Buchanan Street, Topeka, Kans.

Barton lists as Adeline C. Peers

Peers  

Frank

"

"

Peers, Frank J. W., signed with Near East Relief from the base hospital at Fort Sill, Okla., and crossed with the "Leviathan" party of which his sister Miss Adeline Peers was a member.  Sent to Aintab Mr. Peers was there during the difficult days of the siege.  His address now is 106 Packard Street, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Barton lists as Frank J. W. Peers

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Peltier 

Paul D.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Not listed

Barton lists as Paul Peltier

Perry  

Edward T.

"

"

of Hartford, Con., crossed February 16, 1919, and was sent to the Caucasus where he warded off starvation and disease from some 850 orphans.  At Erivan he was in charge of the industrial work and he suffered an attach of typhus.  In May, 1920, he came back to the States, and worked in the personnel department of Near East Relief.  He is now studying in the theological seminary of Hartford, Conn., preparing to return to Turkey under the American Board in the summer of 1924.  His address is 155 Broad Street.

 

Phelps

Annie A.

"

"

(Miss), yet another of the "Leviathan's" passengers on February 16, 1919, went to Marsovan where she had charge of the industrial relief.  Later she was at Samsoun.  She returned to the United States December 2, 1921.  She is at present working in the Cleveland Associated Charities, her address being 2215 Devonshire Drive, Cleveland, O.

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Phillips

Mabelle C.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Phillips, Mabelle Charlton, of Plainfield, N.J., and New York City, was a member of the Wellesley Unit that crossed on the "Leviathan" and was assigned to the Constantinople Area.  She did case work in Constantinople as chairman of the Case Work Committee.  She aided with the care of the Russian refugees on the island of Proti.  After about two years in Constantinople she was transferred to the Caucasus where she built up the work in Djarlal Oghli.  She returned to America, January, 1923, but went back to Russia with the Friends' Society in whose care she may be addressed at Bunzuluk, Somara.

 

Pinneo

Annie L

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Power 

Mabel H.

"

"

"

Barton lists as Mrs. Mabel H. Power

Pratt   

Armstrong C.

M.D.

"

(Dr.), of New York City was a member of the medical personnel of Near East Relief that crossed on the "Leviathan."  He was attached to the Unit sent to Smyrna which left Derindje with its hospital and laboratory equipment on April 10, 1919.  He assisted in the difficult task of setting in order the old Turkish hospital in a part of which the American hospital was opened.  Then he was sent to the Caucasus and stationed (July, 1919) at Karaklis.  He returned to New York, March 22, 1920, and is now living in Gallup, New Mexico.

Barton lists as Dr. Armstrong C. Pratt

Pratt   

Edna S.

Civilian

"

(Mrs. Armstrong C. Pratt), did relief work in Karaklis and came to the States as above.

Listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Pye     

Ernest

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Ranney

Charles F.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

"

Not listed in Barton

Reilly 

Grace L.

"

"

(Miss), of Allston, Mass., went over on the "Leviathan" with the nursing force of the Near East Relief.  She served at Constantinople and was one of the nurses attached to Near East Relief on the island of Proti when the refugees driven from Russia by the Bolshevists went there to be cared for.  She returned to America June 19, 1920, and is now Superintendent and Instructor of Nurses at Arlington Heights, Mass. (149 Hillside Avenue.)

Barton says Grace L. Reilly (now Mrs. H. J. Raynor)


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Richards

George L.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Dr.), of Fall River, Mass., Assistant Director of the Medical Division of Near East Relief, aided in filling the lists of the medical personnel and sailed with them on the "Leviathan."  In the assignment of duties after the meeting with the Director Dr. [George H.] Washburn, in Constantinople, Dr. Richards was stationed at Derindje as Director of the medical work there and in control of the distribution of medical supplies to that unit.  After Dr. Washburn's return to America his post as Medical Director was filled by Dr. Richards.  With Dr. Richards in charge [,] a railway clinic  was maintained on a three-car train running between Derindje and Angora.  After all the material for the stations had been sent out [,] Dr. Richards visited European Turkey and all the stations in Angora, performing ear, nose and throat operations and attending to the redistribution of many supplies.  Since his return to America Dr. Richards has been medical advisor to Near East Relief.  He is now practicing in Fall River (124 Franklin Street).

Barton lists as Dr. George L. Richards

Richards

Mary L.

Civilian

"

(Mrs. George L. Richards), went over registered as a nurses' helper.  See above.

Not listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Richards

Lyman G.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Dr.), of Fall River, Mass., joined the medical personnel on the "Leviathan" February 16, 1919.  He was stationed at Smyrna with Dr. [Armstrong C.] Pratt and Dr. [Hugh W.] Bell working in the hospital and the clinics until about October first, when he returned to America.  He may be addressed care Dr. George L. Richards, 124 Franklin Street, Fall River, Mass.

Barton lists as Dr. Lyman G. Richards

Richmond

Clara C.

Civilian

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Riggs

Charles T.

"

"

"

Barton lists as Charles Riggs

Riggs

Mrs. Charles   T.

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Riggs  

Mary

"

"

"

Listed in Barton

Robb

Genevieve L.

"

"

Robb, Genevieve I. (Miss), of New York City, joined the nursing personnel of Near East Relief that sailed on February 16, 1919.  She was stationed at Adana.  She left for America via Mersine, March 13, 1920, reaching home May 30.  Miss Robb is now Supervising Nurse of the New York State Department of Health, her address being 229 East Main Street, Walden, N.Y.

 

Rosenberg

Caroline

 M.D.

"

Not listed

Barton lists as Dr. Caroline Rosenberg


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Rothrock

Anna E

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Mrs.), crossed on the "Leviathan" as head of the nursing force of Near East Relief and was stationed at Constantinople where she became Superintendent of the American Hospital at Stamboul.  This hospital developed a well-organized training school for native nurses.  Transferred to the Red Cross, Mrs. Rothrock worked with the Russian refugees on the island of Proti.  She is now doing hospital social service for the South Side Hospital, South 20th Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Barton lists as Mrs. Anna E. Rothrock

Ryan

J. Clyde

"

"

of Muncie, Indiana, was a member of the "Leviathan" party.  Stationed at Trebizond he served actively in the turmoil of this busy station.  March 3, 1920 found him again in the United States.  His address is 300 East Highland Avenue, Muncie, Ind.

 

Ryan

Winogene

"

"

(Mrs. J. Clyde Ryan), of Muncie, Indiana crossed as above with her husband as a relief helper at Trebizond.  Return and address as above.

Barton says Mrs. J. Clyde Ryan

Schultze

Helen

"

"

Shultz, Helen (Miss), of Reading, Pa. was one of the "Leviathan" group of nurses.  She served in Marash during the days when the American buildings were under fire and came home May 23, 1920.  She is now doing private nursing in Reading, Pa.  her address being 155 No. Front Street.

Barton lists as Helen Shultz


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Shafer 

Irving E.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Dr.), of Salisbury, N.C., was one of the "Leviathan" party's medical men.  Stationed at Samsoun with its hordes of refugees striving to leave the country he did a huge amount of work in the former Greek hospital turned over the Near East Relief.  He returned February 9, 1920 and is now practicing at Salisbury, N.C.

Barton says Dr. Irving E. Shafer

Shane  

Myrtle O.

Civilian

"

(Miss), of Columbus, O., who had endured the troubled days of Bitlis as an American Board Missionary, sailed on the "Leviathan" and undertook executive duties at Alexandropol.  She was one of those who remained in the Caucasus after the fall of Kars in October, 1920.  She took no holiday from her work until after two and a half years' most valuable services in the Caucasus area when she went to Constantinople for a visit.  In September, 1921 she sailed once more for the Caucasus where she continued her Near East Relief service until the winter of 1922.  At that time she was released from the organization, and again took up missionary activities.  She is now serving at a mission school at Salonica. 

 

Sharp  

Roberta K. (Br)

"

"

(Miss), of Canada and New York City, was one of the nursing members of the "Leviathan" party.  After serving in Smyrna she went to Constantinople and was transferred to the Red Cross for work for Russian refugees at Proti.  Miss Sharp is now Nurse in Charge at Wells College, Aurora, N.Y.

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Sherman

Louise R.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Sherman, Louise Reed (Miss), of Massachusetts went overseas on the "Trafford," February 23, 1919.  She worked in the Beirut Area at Tripoli and returned to America June 18, 1920.  She is now traveling for her health but may be addressed Newtonville, Mass. 

 

Listed in Barton. She may have missed the Leviathan. 

Sherman

Vina M.

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton

Small  

Helen K

"

"

(Miss), of Maine, made one of the "Leviathan" party and went to Hadjin where she was in charge of the orphanage during the siege.  She went on the Adana, whence she transferred 600 orphans to the Island of Cyprus.  From Adana she was transferred to Harpoot where she stayed a year, and sailed for the states in August, 1921.  Miss Small may be addressed at Yarmouthville, Maine.

Barton lists as Helen H. Small

Smith

Arthur J.

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton as Dr. Judson A. Smith.  There seems to be a reversal of the first two initials in the passenger list.

Smith

Harriet A.

"

"

(Miss), of Boston, Mass., made one of the nursing force on the "Leviathan."  Stationed at Urfa she was in charge of the orphanage clinic throughout the hostilities and until June, 1920 when she left Constantinople for America.  Her address is 52 Westland Avenue, Boston, Mass.  She is connected with the Massachusetts State Department of Public Welfare.

Listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Smith

Carleton T.

M.D.

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

of Massachusetts, sailed on January 16, 1919, and was assigned to Adana where he served as a laboratory worker at a time when the hospital was packed and the clinic was giving 2,500 and 3,000 treatments a week.  He came home May 27, 1920 and may be addressed 14 Webster Street, West Newton, Mass.

Not listed on the passenger list of the "Leviathan" but Team Work lists his wife and himself as being on the Leviathan.

Smith

Hildegarde G.

Civilian

"

Smith, Hildegarde (Mrs. Judson A. Smith), of Cambridge, Mass., sailed with her husband, Dr. Smith, on the "Leviathan" and went on with him to Konia, where she did hospital and orphanage work.  The permanent address of Dr. and Mrs. Smith is 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston Mass., but at the moment they are in Los Angeles, Cal., where they be addressed, 900 Wildwood Trail.

Barton says Hildegarde Smith (now Mrs. Judson A.) [Both Smiths are listed by Barton.]

Smith

Lillian S.

"

"

Keizer, Lillian Soule Smith – (Mrs. John Keizer), of Boston, Mass., went across on the "Leviathan" and was booked to Derindje for secretarial work and housekeeping.  She married Mr. Keizer at Barzidag. 

John Keizer of Lafayette, Ind., was in Paris in August, 1919, when he signed with Near East Relief.  He did transportation work at the Derindje warehouse.  He married Miss Lillian Soule Smith of the Derindje Unit, May 7, 1921, and they returned to America via Holland July 3, 1921.  Mr. and Mrs. Keizer are both doing Boys' Industrial School work.  Their address is Bolton, Mass. (P.O. Box 42.)

Smith

Maurice F.

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Smith

Olive A.

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Plattsburgh, New York, and of New York City, was a member of the Wellesley Unit that crossed on the "Leviathan."  She acted as Business Manager at the Constantinople Headquarters throughout her Near East Relief service.  She returned January 29, 1920.  Miss Smith is now personnel manager in a department store in Terre Haute, Indiana, and may be addressed 920 South 7th Street.

 

Smith

Sarah M.

"

"

Smith, Sarah Margaret (Miss), of Ephrata, Pa., joined the force of nurses on the "Leviathan."  Assigned to the Beirut Area she worked at Shuf.  She returned August 10, 1920.  Her present address is Ephrata, Lancaster Co., Pa.

Barton lists as Sarah Margaret Smith

Smucker

Jesse

 ‘Brother’

"

Smucker, Jesse M. (Rev.), of Smithville, Ohio, crossed with the "Leviathan" party and was assigned to Diarbekir where he aided Miss Emily Wade and Miss [Anna] Dando to manage the activities of the station.  He returned September, 1920.  At present he is acting as teacher and minister at Smithville, O.

Probably a Mennonite.

Barton lists as Jesse M. Smucker

Snyder

Paul

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

Snyder, Paul V., of Texas, crossed on the "Leviathan" and was sent to Marash.  He was there during the dangerous and exciting days of the American occupancy.  Mr. Snyder was one of those who stayed on at the Near East Relief station after Dr. [Mabel] Elliott and others had taken out some 3,000 refugees.  Later he went to the Aleppo area and was in the transport service at Beirut.  He returned to America, September 25, 1920.  He is now living in Hesston, Kans.

Barton lists as Paul V. Snyder


Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Spaulding

Mary

"

"

Spalding, Mary of Lowell, Mass., a dietitian, joined the "Leviathan" party, served at Sivas and later at Alkhalkalaki and returned to the States, July 19, 1920.  Miss Spalding is now living in New York City at 410 West 115th Street, and is studying health education.

(Barton lists as Mary Spalding)

Stapleton

Robert

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Stapleton

Mrs. Robert

"

"

"

Not listed in Barton

Starrett

Eyadas M.

"

"

"

"

Stevens

Katherine

"

"

"

"

Stevenson

Emily R.

"

"

(Mrs.), of Spuyten Duyvil, New York City, crossed on the "Leviathan" with the nursing forces for a year at Adana.  She came home October 18, 1920 and is still living at Spuyten Duyvil, where she is engaged in nursing.  

Barton says Mrs. Emily R. Stevenson (now Mrs. Oldfield)

Stively

Florence M.

"

"

(Miss), of Syracuse, New York, another "Leviathan" nurse, was stationed at Harpoot.  She left Constantinople for home May 15, 1920.  Miss Stively is now at home in Syracuse, New York (454 James Street), and is nursing.

 

Stone  

Mary S.

"

"

Not listed

Not listed in Barton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Stuart 

Ruth   

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of New York City, a nurse with the "Leviathan" party, went to the Caucasus and worked in and about Alexandropol, being at Shusha during severe fighting and insisting on returning to that dangerous point.  She returned June 8, 1920.  Miss Stuart may be addressed 134 Mt. Vernon Street, Boston, Mass.

 

Sullivan

Mary L.

"

"

Not listed

Listed in Barton

Super  

Mary W.

"

"

(Miss), of Narberth, Pa., another "Leviathan"-ite had thrilling experiences during the siege of Hadjin.  She had nursed a Turkish officer back to health and his intervention somewhat lessened the difficulties of the siege.  On June 13, 1920, the Turks captured the buildings and ordered out the Americans, allowing them to carry only hand baggage.  On July 20, 1920, Miss Super left Constantinople on her way to the States.  She is now doing private nursing in Narberth, Pa., her address being 728 Montgomery Avenue.

 

Sutton

Alice E.

"

"

Sutton, A. Estella (Miss), of New York City, sailed with the big group of February 16, 1919, served in Constantinople and was transferred to the Red Cross for work with the Russian refugees at Proti.  She came home in February, 1921, and is now doing nursing in Phoenix, Arizona, her address being 2210 West Jefferson Street.

Barton lists as Alice E. Sutton


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Teal    

Helen

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Miss), of Indiana, steamed on February 16, 1919 with the nursing contingent on the "Leviathan."  She served in the Aleppo district and returned April 14, 1920.  She is now Assistant National Director, American Red Cross, Public Health Nursing, and her address is 1260 Allison Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.

 

Tenner

Arthur S.

 M.D.

"

(Dr.), of New York City was one of the first group of medical personnel sent across by the Near East Relief.  As an eye surgeon he was assigned to Aleppo where the eye diseases of the Near East seemed to be concentrated in the refugee camps in and around this border city.  He established an ophthalmic hospital in Aleppo and did some work at Adana.  He returned September 11, 1920 and is now practicing at 70 East 56th Street, New York City.

Barton lists as Dr. Arthur S. Tenner

Tipple

Adeline M.

Civilian

"

Tipple, Adeline Mary (Miss), of New York City sailed on the "Leviathan."  Assigned to Sivas (July 1919) she organized 500-boy orphanage preparing much of the equipment – furniture and bedding – with the aid of the refugees.  From July to November she conducted a boys' camp.  In January, 1920, Miss Tipple was transferred to Alexandropol.  On June 8, 1920 she left Constantinople for the States.  At present she is doing social work in New York City as Head of the Italian Work of the Clark Neighborhood House, her address being 283 Rivington Street.

 


 

Surname

First Name

Situation/Title

Team Work

Veterans' Number Entry

Comments

Todd

Edith Allen

Civilian

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

(Mrs. J. Edward Todd), of Flatbush, New York, crossed with the "Leviathan" party and was sent to Tiflis.  There she met and married Mr. Todd, September 20, 1919, severed her collection with Near East Relief and returned to Constantinople (February, 1920) to take a position with her husband in Dr. [William W.] Peet's office in the Bible House.  The Todds returned to America in April, 1920.  They are now living in 3 Woodbine Street, Worcester, Mass.

J. Edward Todd of Lawrence, Kansas was a member of the pioneer Near East Relief party sailing on the "Mercurius" January 16, 1919.  Assigned to Tiflis he worked there until, after his marriage to Miss Allen, he ended his connection with our Committee and went to Constantinople to take a position in Dr. Peet's office.  He returned as indicated in the column to the left and is now selling life insurance in the "Heart of the Commonwealth."

Trefethren

Anna L.

"